BOSANA – OIL VARIETY
La Bosana è la cultivar di olivo più diffusa in Sardegna. L’etimologia del nome è incerta, ma potrebbe fare riferimento ad una presunta origine nel territorio di Bosa. Origine incerta, in base a diverse ricerche si può escludere che la cultivar sia di origine spagnola.
The etymology of the name is uncertain, but it could refer to an alleged origin in the territory of Bosa. Its origins are uncertain, but several studies exclude a possible Spanish origin.
It is spread in the olive-growing areas in the centre and north of Sardinia (Sassari, Nurra, Marghine, Planargia) and to a lesser degree also in central southern Sardinia,
It is generally accepted that other varieties of local extent are identical to the Bosana. Synonyms that are mentioned in the literature include: Palma, Aligaresa, Algherese, Tonda di Sassari, Sassarese, Olia de Ozzu, Olieddu, Sivigliana piccola and Bosinca. For the most part these are names identifying other varieties of limited range that are local types of the Bosana. It is a quite vigorous cultivar, with a spreading growth habit; it has plain, elliptic-lanceolate leaves with an open apex, and they are medium-sized. Olives are middle-sized (2.5–3 g), slightly egg-shaped and quite symmetrical, with the greater diameter towards the top. The apex of the stone is rounded and has no umbo. The surface is covered with many small lenticels.Veraison starts from the apex and advances from there. When mature, the colour of the fruit is black. It is a quite late cultivar, in Medio Campidano it ripens between November and December.
The biggest drupes are often transformed to table olives, whether green or black. They are considered to have the quality of not fading during the process. Thanks to Luigi Veronelli, the “pitted Bosana oil” has been produced for several years now: olives are crushed after having been pitted, thus obtaining a product of great elegance and refinement. It is considered a very productive cultivar, well adapted to use in intensive growth olive groves, also with narrow spacing and peculiar fruit tree forms (e.g. monocone). It tends to alternating use, which can be limited in intensive olive groves with adequate forms of land management (fertilizing, irrigation and pruning).
This cultivar is quite self-sterile, so it can take advantage of other pollinators. Among the olive cultivars used for pollination are the Nera di Gonnos (Tonda di Cagliari), Pizz’e carroga, Nera di Oliena (Nera di Villacidro or Paschixedda) and Cariasina.It does not show and particular vulnerability to the major pests, with the exception of the bird’s eye spot disease, especially in the dampest parts of north-central Sardinia. It is also resistant to heat and moths.
Traditionally considered a dual use cultivar, it is in reality mainly used for oil extraction and gives a good yield. The oil is of a high-quality if olives are picked early, when they start ripening.