Bergamot Orange (Citrus Bergamia)


The Bergamot Orange does not have certain botanic origins: according to the botanist Chapot (1962) it could be a natural hybrid between the Bitter Orange and the Bitter Lime. We can find the Bergamot Orange in some paintings by Bambi dating back to the XVII century, where it was mentioned as “Bergamot pear”. It was introduced to Calabria between the XIV and the XVI century.


This tree is moderately vigorous, it has big, pointy leaves with a narrow-wings petiole. It only blooms in Spring and has white flowers. Its fruits are medium-sized, rounded or pear-shaped, and bear the remains of the style. Their peel is of a bright yellow, rich in essential oils, and has a strong, characteristic aroma. Their pulp is yellow-greenish, bitterish and very sour. The development of the Bergamot Orange cultivation is linked to the invention of the “Eau de Cologne” by the Italian Giovanni Paolo Feminis, who patented it around 1700 in Germany. As a basic essence for the perfume, he used the oil contained in the peel of the Bergamot Orange.